Forty percent of U.S. residents rely on groundwater for their drinking water. However, groundwater, especially unconfined sand and gravel aquifers, is vulnerable to contamination.

Publications and Presentations

Schaider, L.A., L.R. Swetschinski, C. Campbell, R.A. Rudel. 2019. Environmental justice and drinking water quality: are there socioeconomic disparities in nitrate levels in U.S. drinking water? Environmental Health. DOI: 10.1186/s12940-018-0442-6 


Cordner, A., V.Y. De La Rosa, L.A Schaider, R.A. Rudel, L. Richter, P. Brown.  2019. Guideline Levels for PFOA and PFOS in Drinking Water: The Role of Scientific Uncertainty, Risk Assessment Decisions, and Social FactorsJournal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology. DOI: 10.1038/s41370-018-0099-9


Hu X.C., D. Andrews, A.B. Lindstrom, T.A. Bruton, L.A. Schaider, P. Grandjean, R. Lohmann, C.C. Carignan, A. Blum, S.A. Balan, C.P. Higgins, E.M. Sunderland. 2016. Detection of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in U.S. drinking water linked to industrial sites, military fire training areas and wastewater treatment plants. Environmental Science & Technology Letters, 3(10):344–350. doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00260


Schaider L.A., R.A. Rudel, J.M. Ackerman, S. Dunagan, J.G. Brody. 2014. Pharmaceuticals, Perfluorosurfactants, and Other Organic Wastewater Compounds in Public Drinking Water Wells in a Shallow Sand and Gravel Aquifer. Science of the Total Environment, 468–469:384-393. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.08.067